Where Is the Promised Investigation of the Hezbollah-Iran Plane Bombing in Panama?

Todd Bensman
By Todd Bensman
Source: Townhall
Source: AP Photo/Rodrigo Abd, File

In May 2018, Panamanian President Juan Varela issued a public promise that briefly made international headlines and was much heralded: After nearly 25 years, Panama would open a full investigation into the mid-air bombing of Alas Chiricanas Flight 901, which killed 22 Panamanians, including 12 of that country’s leading Jewish businessmen.

The promise of investigation into an unattributed bombing mystery, all but forgotten outside Panama, came after Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, ahead of a diplomatic meeting last year with Panamanian President Juan Varela, gave him specific intelligence information ascribing the tragedy to the terrorist group Hezbollah and its patron Iran. 

No world government had ever acknowledged the downing of Flight 901 as an Islamic terror attack, even though it happened one day after Iran-Hezbollah bombed the Argentine Israelite Mutual Association (AIMA) building in Buenos Aires, killing 85 civilians, most of them Argentinian Jews, and injuring 300. In contrast with Panama, Argentina eventually mounted thorough, though troubled, investigations of the AMIA attack and a 1992 bombing of the Israeli embassy in Buenos Aires. These exposed for the first time the extent of Iranian-Hezbollah projection of power into the Western Hemisphere and its operating methods via clandestine support cells, local expatriate sympathizers, and Iranian embassies used for diplomatic cover. 

But months of requests by the authors of this report for an update on the Panamanian investigation’s progress ran into an apparent determination to not speak of it, either on or off the record, with or without attribution. After a January 2019 report by Todd Bensman from Panama casting initial doubt that the promised investigation got underway, the Middle East Forum funded additional reporting efforts by the Spanish-speaking Uruguayan-Israeli journalist Jana Beris, who continued to seek confirmation in Israel and in Panama through the summer of 2019.

But neither journalist could obtain any such confirmation from any quarter during continuing 2019 reporting efforts, to include government channels in both countries in addition to Panama’s Jewish community, local journalists, and elected political party leaders.

What is all but confirmed instead is that the promised investigation was never launched.

“I think silence, both from the Israeli and Panamanian side, is the message,” Beris observed after her effort.

At the time, the FBI believed Jamal was with a support team of “unknown Middle Eastern males” from Lebanon linked to South American weapons traffickers and who, with a stolen American credit card some six weeks before the bombing, financed vehicle rentals and the purchase of a Motorola two-way radio communications device that Jamal had on the flight. The vehicles were later found abandoned near Tocumen Airport in Panama City.

The FBI thought the attack was linked to “a terrorist group or terrorist groups” following the extremist ideology of Ansar Allah, a violent Shia extremist movement rooted in Sidon, Lebanon and Houthi tribes in Yemen, which still hold financial, operational and ideological links to Hezbollah and Iran. But that’s as far as any investigation went. A competing theory held that drug cartels in neighboring Colombia, which had used similar tactics to eliminate rivals or debtors, might have contracted the job out to eliminate perceived enemies aboard the flight. 

The mystery of Flight 901 was left in that stasis until the Israeli prime minister sent a private November 2017 letter to President Varela outlining Israeli intelligence information ahead of a planned state visit by Varela to Israel scheduled for May 2018. After the state visit, both leaders publicly revealed that Israel’s new information had all but solved the bombing. It was a Hezbollah terror attack just like the Argentina attacks, they both indicated at a joint press briefing during that visit.

As for Israel’s uncharacteristic silence about a chance to damage the Hezbollah brand, the restraint can be reasonably explained as an exercise is diplomatic deference to a sensitive situation for an allied nation.

‘We are close to you; how close you wouldn’t know’: Why a Panama investigation matters

The evident failure to seize an investigative opportunity offered by Flight 901 matters in ways that are material to current United States foreign security policy and to a global effort among nations to counter nefarious activities by Hezbollah and Iran. Consider the largely unacknowledged ways that Argentina’s investigation has been used to expand knowledge of Hezbollah-Iran operations in South America and informed the U.S. ability to disrupt them there.

Joseph Humire, Executive Director of the Center for a Secure and Free Society and an expert on Latin American security affairs, said Nisman’s final report on the Buenos Aires bombings has withstood the test of time and retained a high value to the rest of the world, even though no one has yet to be brought to justice. 

“For anyone who wants to understand how Hezbollah and Iran operate in Latin America, that’s the blueprint,” Humire said of the Nisman investigation in a telephone interview from the tri-border region of Argentina, Paraguay, and Brazil, where he was attending a security conference partly about Hezbollah’s footprint in the region.

While none of those indicted have been arrested or brought to justice, these investigations into long-ago 1990s terrorist acts matter today. Just last month, on the anniversary of the 1994 AIMA bombing, the Nisman report was cited as justification for Argentina to formally designate Hezbollah a terrorist organization.  The designation enables Argentina to lawfully attack Hezbollah’s South American operations alongside the United States. 

And that was just the most recent action to grow from Argentina’s Hezbollah investigations. The U.S. State Department in 2017 issued a report explicitly crediting Argentina’s Iran-Hezbollah investigations with prompting counterterrorism penal system reforms, new approaches to combating terrorism financing and a modernization of security and intelligence capabilities. These are being applied in Argentina’s lawless hinterlands and ungoverned parts of neighboring countries where Hezbollah’s criminal enterprises are concentrated. U.S. State Department reporting say the group derives significant strength from the drugs and weapons trade in many South American countries such as Venezuela, Peru, and Bolivia.

But what of Central America, much closer to the United States? The shuttering of a Panama investigation means the loss of a rare opportunity to expand knowledge about Iran and Hezbollah even closer to America’s southern gate, where it may well involve different groups of supporters, means and methods, and criminal activity preferences. 

This is not a stale matter of 1990s circumstances; in about 2007, Iran established itself firmly in Nicaragua, with almost no media interest or public reporting as to its regional activities in the years since. As well, current New York and Michigan prosecutions of Hezbollah’s intelligence wing in the United States recently revealed that an intelligence operative was tracked as recently as 2011 and 2012 to Panama, where he collected information on targets such as Panama Canal shipping and successfully delivered it back to handlers in Lebanon, where it still obviously resides. 

By contrast with Argentina’s Nisman-inspired new counterterror laws and efforts, Panama failed even to pass an anti-terrorism statute as proposed in 2015.

At a time when U.S.-demanded global economic sanctions against Iran have led to saber-rattling, seized oil tankers, and shot down drones, the opportunity costs of shuttering the Flight 901 investigation should not be allowed to pass in silence, without notice or discussion. 

A case in point for the need to know more about Hezbollah-Iran in Central America came last summer when Iranian Revolutionary Guard Corps General Ghasem Soleimani warned President Trump after a testy exchange: “Mr. Gambler, Trump! I’m telling you that we are close to you, exactly where, you wouldn’t think that we are.”